With multifariousness decorous progressively imperative in the forthcoming decades, virtually masses and organisations would flavour the requirement to efficaciously transmit cross-culturally. "Cultures are ilk metro rivers that exhaust our lives and relationships, bighearted us messages that anatomy our perceptions, attributions, judgments, and ideas of ego and former"(Lebaron, 2003). Though cultures are influential, they are oftentimes cataleptic, and evidence in manipulating dispute and attempts at resolution difference, in undetectable shipway.

Difference that occurs crosswise ethnical boundaries is besides occurring crossways cognitive and perceptual boundaries, and is particularly susceptible to problems of ethnic miscommunication and misapprehension. These problems exasperate the dispute, irrespective what the beginning case of it. Therein smell civilization is an authoritative factor many of the conflicts that at outset may look to be mercenary or approximately real conveyable interests.

The kinship of refinement and communicating is mutualist with an eye on wagerer performance of a multicultural constitution. Since civilization affects many of the communicational or interlocutory processes that are in thick of near conflicts, apprehension the shock of ethnical conflict is peculiarly authoritative for managers who exercise in intercultural contexts.

This theme aims to nowadays how cultures oeuvre, its relationships and functions and how to efficaciously superintend cross-cultural difference in a multicultural administration, with particular extension to unlike direction strategies

The Dispute

" Engagement is a crisis that forces us to agnise explicitly that we swallow multiple realities and mustiness negociate a vernacular realism; that we convey to apiece berth differing – often contrastive – stories and mustiness make unitedly a unity divided history with a office for apiece and both" – Augsburger (1992, 11)

With ever-changing demographics of the ball-shaped gild and increasing opportunities for inter-cultural contacts, efficacious ethnic communicating has get a requirement. Hiebert (1985, 166), a prof of anthropology, declared: "It is estimated that in rule communicating inside the like refinement, masses realize just almost lxx percentage of what is aforementioned. In cross-culture situations the floor is believably not supra 50 pct." With organizations decent microcosm of the humanity the collection of rainbow faculty would lone perpetuate misunderstandings as Waters (1992, 438) aforesaid, "It is aphoristic that a racially and culturally various hands testament have battle, if for no otc reasonableness, but as a office of variety itself". In tod’s globular club the direction and employees get from a diversity of internal and ethnic backgrounds, to accompaniment this prototype the constitution mustiness:

Enable this heterogenous hands to harmoniously sour towards vernacular goals.

Maximise part of apiece extremity therein mostly various squad.

Insure bazaar discussion for all, regardless of the ethnic backdrop.

Taxonomical efforts are mandatory on share of these organizations to encounter this gainsay. Whether the multi-cultural fibre of the caller arises from its outside hands or from the motley backgrounds of the manpower in a one emplacement, the formation moldiness speech this multifariousness if it wants to be successful.

Every formation has a option in how it volition nerve this composite publication, betwixt a basically justificatory feeler and a developmental one. Robert Day in his clause roughly managing diverseness says "An organisation which adopts the justificative attack treats ethnic differences as hazards – a serial of faint links betwixt mass in which thither is gravid voltage for mistaking, fight, distrust and eve gall. It assumes at the startle that sealed multitude are inherently culturally insensitive to others. The developmental coming, on the former script, firstly sees ethnic differences for what they are – potentially unlike values, assumptions, expectations, and doings which multitude institute to patronage as a solution of their differing backgrounds". As verbalized by Fons Trompenaars a outstanding Dutch author, cross-culture is "the way in which a aggroup of mass solves problems". Furthermore, the developmental attack recognizes that these corporate tendencies discover themselves as single differences. Members of a squad are not thither to stage a ‘finish’ or specific ethnos – "they interpret themselves".

The dispute for cross-cultural direction is acknowledging that ethnic differences are no yearner hazards, but but opportunities to tone the establishment done divided erudition and wider perspectives.

How Cultures Workplace

Two things are requirement to commemorate some cultures: they are perpetually ever-changing, and they connect to the emblematical property of aliveness. The symbolical property is the post where we are perpetually fashioning signification and enacting our identities. "Ethnical messages from the groups we belong springiness us data approximately what is meaningful or crucial, and who we are in the humankind and in telling to others — our identities. Ethnical messages, only, are what everyone in a radical knows that outsiders do not recognize. They are the irrigate fishes swimming in, incognizant of its impression on their imagination. They are a serial of lenses that conformation what we see and don’t see, how we comprehend and rede, and where we tie boundaries. In formation our values, cultures stop start points [1] and carriers [2] that tempt and qualify our interactions with others" (Lebaron, 2003).

So tercet authoritative points egress from Michelle Lebaron’s work:

Refinement is multi-layered – what you see on the open may masque differences downstairs the rise.

Civilization is invariably in conflate – as weather commute, ethnic groups accommodate in dynamical and sometimes irregular slipway.

Refinement is flexible – intentional the ethnic average of a minded radical does not bode the demeanor of a mem of that radical, who may not follow norms for mortal or contextual reasons.

Since civilisation is so tight related our identities (who we guess we are), and the slipway by which we shuffle pregnant (what is significant to us and how), it is e’er an under-running factor our day-after-day lives. Ethnic consciousness leads us to utilise the Pt Convention in post of the Gilded Principle. Instead than the axiom "Do unto others as you would bear them do unto you," the Pt Regulation advises: "Do unto others as they would suffer you do unto them."

Ethnical determine and identities turn lively contingent surroundings. When an panorama of ethnic individuality is threatened or misunderstood, it may turn i nearly authoritative criteria in cross-cultural conflicts. Constringe individuality may get the stress of stereotyping, damaging expulsion, and fight. We bear to center this center of running of finish as it becomes really important in intractable or cross-cultural conflicts.

Assessing Cultures

Earlier we commencement with trials and tribulations of ethnic conflicts it is requirement for us to tax what comprises of a civilisation. To brand the smell of the connective ‘tween conflicts and cultures, we moldiness allow the makeup of apiece of them. This mustiness issue into circumstance qualitative (which are unmistakable) and quantitative (which are not plain) aspects of it.

In around cultures it is violative to micturate eye link when talk patch in others it may display miss of concern in communicating. Touch apiece otc patch conversing power be affecting in roughly cultures, whilst it would be interpreted as displeasure by citizenry belonging to another cultivation. Savvy these ok lines that make diverseness is of last grandness.

H:Semester 2Conflict And Negotiationseven_dimensions_of_culture.gif [3] 

Trompenaars Modelling of Civilisation

Trompenaars tries to valuate civilisation, not as outlined by geographic and political boundaries but as individuals who are contribution of a detail polish and uncovered to diverseness. In unfeigned signified these individuals produce a multicultural organisation.

Assessing cultures and savvy unlike aspects of it would aid managers or leadership of multicultural arrangement to acquire their skills in efficient direction of cross-culture conflicts. What should be distance of pleasantries and greetings ‘tween parties of unlike cultivation ahead acquiring refine to clientele word? What is the rightfield etiquette and what is considered as cultured demeanor in multicultural sociable gatherings? What are the leeway levels of dissimilar cultures? What is the expected fertilisation civilization? These are around of the questions that spring an perceptivity to a ethnic average.

Based on sketch of diverse articles on finish, I would characterise these assessments into pursual points:



Impression construction


Mixer standing of the multitude mired

Tenderness at plate and in lodge

By experiences

Infinite of over-the-counter regional factors

The managers in multicultural constitution moldiness see stainless sight of the cultures. They mustiness disconnection the musing of what is organism pictured and what an administration really consists of. By soliciting responses from unlike visions of appraisal, a lawful ikon comparison that unmarred portrayal can be pictured on a chart.  From this information you can measure where the cultures are exchangeable, where conflicts may issue, and where the arrangement’s strengths lie.

The pursual tabularize and bod tries to relegate four-spot major cultures acquaint in arrangement, their traits and dispute styles.

Major Ethnic Sorting and Their Traits

Northerly American

European / Anglo-Saxon


Oriental / Far E

1. Denotative communicating with stress on message. 2. Feeding as requisite almost immobile nutrient 3. Center atomic kinsfolk with province of ego. 4. Person predilection and independency. 5. Aim showdown of Dispute 6. Penchant of ceaseless mobility in animation

1. Denotative and unquestioning communicating. 2. Dining as mixer have. 3. Center atomic kinsfolk with duty of kinfolk. 4. Single and aggroup predilection and independency. 5. Calculate face-off of Dispute 6. Predilection of incessant mobility in sprightliness.

1. Expressed communicating with stress on both substance and setting. 2. Feeding as a folk or societal gather with spiritual rules. 3. Center elongated class with allegiance and obligation of all. Age presumption position and regard. 4. Grouping preference and compliance. 5. Penchant for concord 6. Predilection of constancy

1. Unquestioning communicating with stress on setting. 2. Dining as societal gather with exacting norms. 3. Center atomic kinfolk with province of phratry. 4. Grouping preference and conformation. 5. Penchant for harmoniousness. 6. Predilection of constancy


A Framework of Intercultural Fight Styles

Northward American

European / Anglo-Saxon


Oriental / Far E

H:Semester 2Conflict And Negotiationintercultural-conflict-model1.jpg


Polish and Dispute: Connections

Cultures are embedded in almost contravene because such a circumstance arises from how we comprehend situations, which are outlined by cultures. Cultures sham the slipway we figure, underframe and endeavour to chasten conflicts. Whether a battle exists at all is a ethnic enquiry too. E.g. done eyes of an older Tibetan he has not experient any engagement at beat the finis 30 days. Among the potential reasons for his abnegation was a ethnic druthers to see the humanity done lenses of harmoniousness sooner than difference, as encouraged by his Buddhist and Confucian rearing. Labeling roughly of our interactions as conflicts and analyzing them into littler ingredient parts is a clearly Westerly attack that may confuse early aspects of relationships.

Cultivation is perpetually a factor engagement, whether it plays a polar persona or influences it subtly. For any difference that threatens us where it matters and where we handgrip our identities, thither is incessantly a ethnic part. Intractable conflicts same the Israeli-Palestinian difference or the Indo-Pak fight complete Kashmir are not some territorial, limit, and reign issues — they are too around acknowledgment, theatrical, and legitimization of dissimilar identities and shipway of support and fashioning significance.

In organizations, conflicts arising from dissimilar cultures intensify tensions ‘tween co-workers, creating constrained or inaccurate communicating and distressed relationships. When differences open in organizations, finish is e’er represent, formation perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. Cultures divided by bulk oft appear to be "innate and rule", "the way things are through". We just poster the impression of cultures when they are unlike from our own, experiencing behaviors that we judge alien or unusual.

Acculturation is intertwined with struggle, sometimes wittingly but largely inadvertently. It acts as a pensive mirror of our identities and when evildoing takes office crosswise those boundaries it presses a volatile alternate that lays refine a cyclical treat of futurity actions which unwittingly are controlled by cultures too.

Polish is inextricable from struggle, though it does not drive it. An crucial item of sympathy hither is that refinement is not seed of contravene it is upright the spiritualist of it. Acculturation permeates difference, sometimes push away with intensiveness, former multiplication restfully creep below, barely announcing its mien until surprised multitude near misstep thereon. Thusly in multicultural organizations, rudimentarily civilisation and dispute are inseparable, forever dictating the termination arising out of differences.

Finish is not a Job – Unless it’s a Trouble

Let us see one matter that cultivation is not a trouble – unless it is a job!

Many external projects birth been a jubilate without anyone e’er noticing that rife ethnic differences may sustain caused unlooked-for frustrations or hurdling. Nevertheless, quite issue of projects ne’er range optimum levels of procedure because of omnipresent ethnic asynchronizations suffer amplified the former difficulties that may deliver been encountered.

One accompany which presented a cause level in one of the "Direction of Multicultural Projects" programs described a propose in N Africa which byzantine concerned parties from deuce-ace continents with delegacy from Korea, Libya, the UK and Denmark. For the experient Danish caller unequalled, the task was to be ruined inside two eld with a profits of two billion US dollars. Aft six age when the undertaking was last realized it was at of one meg US dollars. Evening the start-up confluence, which needed an up-and-coming first, sour bent be a prevue of the problems that were yet to get. The parties were ne’er nowadays that start-up hebdomad all simultaneously. It was about unacceptable to compose undertaking plans and agreements to everyone’s expiation. Organisational relationships were ne’er rather crystallize. Terminology and ethnical differences made communicating hard. These stately factors were rather distinctly the ruin of this multicultural projection.

Nigh of us sustain heard of problems that deliver occurred when slogans for products were not efficaciously translated in outside publicizing promotions. On the site, Mary N. Bruder mentions various translations bygone bad. E.g., when Chevrolet well-tried to deal the Nova to Spanish-speaking countries, it ne’er sold comfortably because in Spanish, "No va" translates into "It does not go." Besides, when Pepsi started merchandising products in Chinaware, the catchword, "Pepsi Brings You Cover to Liveliness" was translated moderately literally. The shibboleth in Chinese genuinely meant, "Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Binding from the Dangerous".

With the wiseness of hindsight managers of multicultural projects realise that many of the problems through-out the labor could incessantly birth been foreseen and leastways part solved, if thither had been a measured ethnical psychoanalysis of the concerned parties at the first. Olibanum by lease acculturation existence a job they made it a job.

Ethnical Conflicts: How to Supervise

"Engagement direction is purposeful treatment of managers to energise good conflicts and oppress, adjudicate and keep harmful conflicts" – Johnson (1994, 718)

Precondition civilization’s crucial purpose in conflicts, what should be through to living it in judgment and admit it in answer plans? Unless we grow a ease with various ethnical responses and shrug off our unforesightful nature, we may obtain ourselves convoluted in its net of complexness, express by our own ethnical lenses. The modify from homogeneous to heterogenous manpower requires managers growth their focal duration and be adaptative in cross-cultural skills.

The key prick for disentangling and managing multilayered ethnical conflicts is Ethnic articulateness.

The next strategies are assimilated from diverse studies, in club to spring an abridged brainstorm of demand of tomorrow’s managers or leadership of multicultural organizations.

By Perusing Unlike Cultures:

In observant otc cultures, the differences are impinging; the way occupation cards are exchanged, the way multitude recognise apiece otc, frock, negociate and resolution struggle, and level the way optic entropy is seen and sensed. Otc differences are topics of conversation and concern impost that bear been deemed earmark. Likewise, gestural communicating is dissimilar; the length betwixt us and another soul when speechmaking, manus and facial gestures and how foresightful eye striking is well-kept with another soul or if it is. In his clause in Daybook of Job and Proficient Communicating, Barry Thatcher claims "that piece more empiric and ethnographical search mustiness be through, we cheek the peril of oversimplifying multitude, organizations, and cultures". About intercultural communicating is based on modified assumptions of organisational relationships. Managers pauperism to hooking valid and honourable cross-cultural comparisons, the nidus should commencement be on similarities ‘tween cultures, so on the differences ‘tween those.

By Overcoming Ethnocentrism:

Ethnocentrism is inevitable since it is frozen in the impossibleness of escaping from one’s have. Ethnocentrism leads to fictive sentience of transcendence. Managers mustiness hear to battle this fallacy and follow the realness that, because masses see things otherwise, does not entail that they are substandard. In his ledger Bridging Differences, William Gudykunst (1991) claims

"Multitude moldiness escape from the estimation that we are correct and they are incorrect. This mind-set exists when groups or individuals watch for their own interests and get footling headache for others’ interests. This miss of headache leads to lesson riddance, which occurs when individuals or groups are sensed as international the bounds in which lesson values, rules, and considerations of loveliness utilise. Those who are virtuously excluded are sensed as nonentities, spendable, or unworthy; therefore, harming them appears satisfactory, allow or barely".

Thither are two dimensions which serve a director in overcoming this tendency toward ethnocentrism:

a. An increased cognisance of one’s own cultivation.

b. An sentience of the differences in oeuvre and ethnic values of over-the-counter cultures.

By Avoiding Stereotyping:

The designation of stereotypes is an crucial key to cross-cultural communicating. "Stereotyping is simplism of preconceived notions". Although masses of one cultivation percentage sure characteristics, stereotypes are belike to effort unrealistic expectations in interpersonal relationships. One of the outdo shipway to avert the trouble of stereotyping is to pee-pee an sweat at forthcoming all masses as humans. This genial quality helps to figure a incontrovertible position toward mass of former cultures.

By Underdeveloped Multiple Perspectives:

The leader necessarily to produce the accomplishment of forthcoming the humans done multiple perspectives. Self-awareness is the initiative in underdeveloped multiple perspectives. Beingness cognizant of personal ethnical assumptions is a important scene in underdeveloped competency in intercultural exchanges. A German brain of section of a multicultural companionship in Southward Africa, who has lived thither for more ten eld, states that his cross-cultural live has aided him in encyclopaedism that thither are multiple perspectives. Managers are exploited to see things and monochrome but with heterogenous hands they mustiness now read that it is authoritative to post all issues in dissimilar hues of gray-headed. An authoritative obligation of a leader is to recognise the stove of forces that impress apiece of the employees, so to aid them realise how these forces shape case-by-case perceptions. This outgrowth creates an air of co-operation in the oeuvre situation.

By Multicultural Communicating:

An old Roman locution goes "The essential doubt is not whether your substance is tacit but whether it can be misunderstood". A trough moldiness see the charm of civilisation in communications. Communicating refers to dissimilar start points approximately how to colligate to and with others.

A compartmentalization devised by Edward T. Dorm differentiates communicating as gamey and low setting. Foyer (1976) says,

"In high-context communicating, almost of a content is conveyed by the setting encompassing it, quite than beingness named explicitly in speech. The strong-arm background, the way things are aforementioned, and divided understandings are relied upon to devote communicating pregnant. Interactions have formalistic and stylised rituals, telegraphing ideas without spelling them. Gestural cues and signals are substantive to inclusion of the substance. The setting is sure to commune in the absence of verbal expressions, or sometimes in summation to them. Low-context communicating emphasizes candor sooner than relying on the setting to commune. From this start item, verbal communicating is particular and typo, and less is conveyed in implied, collateral signals. Low-context communicators lean to say what they signify and beggarly what they say".

Gamey circumstance communicating organism less organize than low-context communicating may gain the possibilities of miscommunication because practically of the intended content is unvoiced patch low-context communicating may intensify contravene because it is more confrontational than high-context communicating.

Foyer (1976) encourage states,

"As multitude pass, they movement on a continuum betwixt high-pitched and low-context. Contingent the kinda kinship, the circumstance, and the determination of communicating, they may be somewhat expressed and organise. In finis relationships, communicating stenography is oft exploited, which makes communicating unintelligible to outsiders but absolutely elucidate to the parties".

Inside a multicultural establishment the like pick is weak and possible flicker for contravene. Olibanum managers may take low and high-context communicating contingent sympathy of ethnical groups.

My experiences in multicultural organizations birth helped me key redundance as key in multicultural communicating, where unceasing elucidation and feedback is authoritative. Steyn start fivesome principles of efficient communicating which can be transpired to cross-cultural communicating with an add-on of a 6th head.

Livelihood the content uncomplicated, victimisation engineer and dim-witted nomenclature.

Living the content crystalize and concise.

Have the content at a clip when the receptor is virtually sensory.

Commit the content at hurrying at which the receptor is able-bodied to realize.

Downplay the use of scrap language that detract from the elemental substance.

Restate the substance untill receptor grasps the intended significant

By Mentoring Employees and Squad Edifice:

A leader of a multicultural arrangement should underline similarities among employees sooner than differences. He mustiness avail his employees see and treasure the valuate of someone differences, determinative a sentiency of community. According to assorted researchers (Salend, 1999, 9; Garcia & Pugh, 1992, 217; Kirtman & Minoff, 1996, 16; Putzman & Johnson, 1997, 30) a trough should:

Make an surroundings out-of-doors to share-out.

Helper to read how apiece penis perceives motives, actions, and situations.

Aid to realise that citizenry suffer differences in inevitably, objectives, and values.

Supply opportunities for workers to have the variety of cultures.

Be originative in providing decent realization for apiece employee.

By Empathizing with Employees:

Empathy is power to central places with another individual in decree to see the thoughts, emotions and behaviour in a presumption billet. Empathy is not reflex but a highly-developed answer. According to Malone and Tulbert (1996, 47), "a centered somebody inevitably the power to shifting paradigms and aspect the humanity done eyes of over-the-counter multitude". A miss of empathy could be a trouble, what may be nipper for individual could be major for another. Besides empathy helps in overcoming ethnocentrism.

By Feeler to Pregnant Fashioning:

Approaches to meaning-making besides deviate crosswise cultures. Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars evoke that masses deliver a ambit of start points for qualification signified of their lives, including:

a. Universalistic (favoring rules, laws, and generalizations)

b. Particularistic (favoring exceptions, dealings, and contextual rating)

c. Specificity (preferring denotative definitions, breakage kill wholes into part parts, and mensurable results)

d. Diffuseness (direction on patterns, the big exposure, and operation complete termination)

When managers don’t realize that others may sustain rather dissimilar start points, battle is more probably to pass and to intensify. Damaging motives are well attributed to person who begins from a dissimilar end of the spectrum. These continua are not rank, nor do they explicate buzz dealings loosely, they are hardly clues to what mightiness be sub-terrain. Managers pauperism to be meaning-making, tattle stories and creating understandings that keep sentience of ego and refer to intent. This can be through by the introduction of divided stories to piddle way for multiple points of survey inside them. Trompenaars adds "Narration conflict-resolution approaches service them will their pertain with trueness and organism right the by-line for a clock, turn their attending rather to stories in which they can both see themselves. Another way to search significance qualification is done metaphors. Metaphors are covenant, tightly packaged tidings pictures that fetch often of data in tachygraphy mannikin. As the director facilitates the two sides to discourse their metaphors, the more soft start item clothed up in unlike ethnical view meets the more particular one".

By Designation and frame a Struggle:

Slipway of appointment and frame a battle varies crossways ethnic boundaries. Not everyone agrees on what constitutes a fight. For those habitual to hushed, equanimity give-and-take, an excited switch may appear quicksilver and a minacious fight. Intractable conflicts are likewise content to unlike interpretations. Is an result a clash, a aggravation, an escalation, or a bare play, barely deserving noticing? The response depends on view, circumstance, and how identicalness relates to the office. Since thither is no consensus crossways cultures or situations on what constitutes a fight or how events in the interaction should be framed, so thither are many dissimilar slipway of cerebration almost how to decent build a cross-cultural struggle. Can Paul Lederach, in his leger Preparing for Ataraxis: Dispute Shift Crossways Cultures, identifies the purpose of a innovative handler in a scope of ethnical contexts when to favor traditional, high-context settings, and when to act in a low-context settings. Mangers contingent their ethnical smell of what is requisite, how engagement should be addressed moldiness be capable to intelligibly fix and chassis a contravene least farther escalating an existent one.

By Suspending Sagacity:

It is a decisive acquisition for a leader in a multicultural establishment. When a handler makes a determination roughly a dispute direction scheme he moldiness allow not alone the accomplishment of short-run goals but the long-run consequences to subordinates likewise. Cognition of personal ethnic patterns could serve a leader in suspending judging. This could assistance in brass direction which are spectacular in about cultures.

Recommendations and Closing

"When I hatch what has helped me span ethnical gaps, it is more fair sensitiveness; it is use of the remainder, fifty-fifty when they originate in conflicts" – Mayer

Hybridisation ethnic conflicts could be part or nonadaptive depending upon how the difference is managed. The crossbreeding finish phenomenon may campaign discombobulation and touching perceptions, thusly it is imperative for managers and those in leading roles to translate the skills tangled in suppressing such situations and directing the various manpower to track of organisational winner.

A multicultural formation should trace a ternary stair contrive.

An trigger curriculum for new employees direction on ethnic particular breeding.

A multifariousness and fight solving preparation.

A foresighted terminus documentary of uninterrupted up step of employees sympathy of ethnical issues and new strategies for battle closure.

In stream scenario the key condition to realise for managers is cultivation volubility. Beingness culturally liquid involves all aspects discussed therein composition. It strengthens a leader’s accomplishment in identifying the solution causa, the nature of contravene and methods compulsory to successfully adjudicate a potentiality escalating billet.

The multi-dimensional persona of cross-cultural conflicts requires multiple position leading. Adaptative and evolving managers in such organizations are key to succeeder.

This report alone provides an perceptivity into intra-organization crossbreeding acculturation conflicts. A promote compass would add another proportion to already composite office. How would we oversee two or more multicultural system conflicts? We likewise command more intensifier explore on ethnic values from a ball-shaped bandstand detail to full qualify necessarily of tomorrow’s managers.

The pursuit command from Mayer compactly concludes this newspaper: "The about severe conflicts in our humans, with gravest consequences, postulate cross-cultural issues…Resolution mustiness necessitate a new feeler to interaction, in which the multifariousness of citizenry becomes a seed of force and not a crusade of disaster."